July 24, 2014

Multiple purge threads in Percona Server 5.1.56 and MySQL 5.6.2

Part of the InnoDB duties, being an MVCC-implementing storage engine, is to get rid of–purge–the old versions of the records as they become obsolete.  In MySQL 5.1 this is done by the master InnoDB thread.  Since then, InnoDB has been moving towards the parallelized purge: in MySQL 5.5 there is an option to have a […]

MVCC: Transaction IDs, Log Sequence numbers and Snapshots

MySQL Storage Engines implementing Multi Version Concurrency Control have several internal identifiers related to MVCC. I see a lot of people being confused what they are and why they are needed so I decided to take a time to explain it a bit. This is general explanation, it does not corresponds to Innodb in particular […]

Introducing backup locks in Percona Server

TL;DR version: The backup locks feature introduced in Percona Server 5.6.16-64.0 is a lightweight alternative to FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK and can be used to take both physical and logical backups with less downtime on busy servers. To employ the feature with mysqldump, use mysqldump –lock-for-backup –single-transaction. The next release of Percona XtraBackup will […]

Percona Server: Thread Pool Improvements for Transactional Workloads

In a previous thread pool post, I mentioned that in Percona Server we used an open source implementation of MariaDB’s thread pool, and enhanced/improved it further. Below I would like to describe some of these improvements for transactional workloads. When we were evaluating MariaDB’s thread pool implementation, we observed that it improves scalability for AUTOCOMMIT […]

Differences between READ-COMMITTED and REPEATABLE-READ transaction isolation levels

As an instructor with Percona I’m sometimes asked about the differences between the READ COMMITTED and REPEATABLE READ transaction isolation levels.  There are a few differences between READ-COMMITTED and REPEATABLE-READ, and they are all related to locking.

Recovery after DROP & CREATE

In a very popular data loss scenario a table is dropped and empty one is created with the same name. This is because  mysqldump in many cases generates the “DROP TABLE” instruction before the “CREATE TABLE”:

If there were no subsequent CREATE TABLE the recovery would be trivial. Index_id of the PRIMARY index of […]

Innodb Table Locks

Innodb uses row level locks right ? So if you see locked tables reported in SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS you might be confused and rightfully so as Innodb table locking is a bit more complicated than traditional MyISAM table locks. Let me start with some examples. First lets run SELECT Query:

As you can […]

Why ALTER TABLE shows as two transactions in SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS

When executing an ALTER TABLE, InnoDB (and XtraDB) will create two InnoDB transactions: One transaction is created when the table being ALTERed is locked by the server. This will show up as something like “TABLE LOCK table schema.table_name trx id XXXX lock mode S” in SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS. Another is created when adding or […]

Flexviews is a working scalable database transactional memory example

http://Flexvie.ws fully implements a method for creating materialized views for MySQL data sets. The tool is for MySQL, but the methods are database agnostic. A materialized view is an analogue of software transactional memory. You can think of this as database transactional memory, or as database state distributed over time, but in an easy way […]

Percona is hiring a consultant

We’re hiring. We are looking for the following qualifications: Expert knowledge of MySQL. Not just “certified” — years of production experience with it. You need to know server internals, for example. You need to be able to do anything from optimizing difficult queries to moving high-volume services between data centers without interruption. Expert knowledge of […]