While doing a performance audit for a customer a few weeks ago, I tried to improve the response time of their top slow query according to pt-query-digest‘s report. This query was run very frequently and had very unstable performance: during the time data was collected, response time varied from 50µs to 1s. When I ran [...]
As you may know, flushing in MySQL is an area of my interest, I wrote about it several times, i.e. http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2011/09/18/disaster-mysql-5-5-flushing/ http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2011/03/31/innodb-flushing-a-lot-of-memory-and-slow-disk/ http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2011/01/03/mysql-5-5-8-in-search-of-stability/ In MySQL 5.6 there was implemented a new flushing logic, so I decided to check what do we have now.
As an instructor with Percona I’m sometimes asked about the differences between the READ COMMITTED and REPEATABLE READ transaction isolation levels. There are a few differences between READ-COMMITTED and REPEATABLE-READ, and they are all related to locking.
Percona XtraDB Cluster (PXC) and the technology it uses (Galera) is an exciting alternative to traditional MySQL replication. For those who don’t know, it gives you: Fully Synchronous replication with a write latency increase equivalent to a ping RTT to the furthest node Automatic cluster synchronization, both incremental and full restores The ability to read [...]
Some people want to use a backup to prepare a new Percona XtraDB Cluster node. They want this to avoid State Snapshot Transfer that could slow down the donor (depending of the SST method you are using, the donor can be blocked. I will cover this in a future blog post). As backup are generally [...]
Innodb uses row level locks right ? So if you see locked tables reported in SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS you might be confused and rightfully so as Innodb table locking is a bit more complicated than traditional MyISAM table locks. Let me start with some examples. First lets run SELECT Query:
---TRANSACTION 12303, ACTIVE 26 sec
mysql tables in use 2, locked 0
MySQL thread id 53038, OS thread handle 0x7ff759b22700, query id 3918786 localhost root Sending data
select count(*) from sbtest,sbtest x
Trx read view will not see trx with id >= 12304, sees < 12301
As you can [...]
When executing an ALTER TABLE, InnoDB (and XtraDB) will create two InnoDB transactions: One transaction is created when the table being ALTERed is locked by the server. This will show up as something like “TABLE LOCK table `schema`.`table_name` trx id XXXX lock mode S” in SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS. Another is created when adding or [...]
Suppose you have turned on innodb_file_per_table (which means that each table has its own tablespace), and you have to drop tables in a background every hour or every day. If its once every day then you can probably schedule the table dropping process to run during off-peak hours. But I have seen cases where the [...]
One of the most important features of InnoDB is the row level locking. This feature provides better concurrency under heavy write load but needs additional precautions to avoid phantom reads and to get a consistent Statement based replication. To accomplish that, row level locking databases also acquire gap locks. What is a Phantom Read A [...]
Many backup tools including Percona Xtrabackup, MyLVMBackup and others use FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK to temporary make MySQL read only. In many cases the period for which server has to be made read only is very short, just few seconds, yet the impact of FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK can be quite large because [...]